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Articles and content related to pregnancy.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as the state of carbohydrate (glucose) intolerance that has its onset or first recognition during late pregnancy and has many similarities to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). GDM presents in two forms. The terms “overt” and “gestational diabetes” are used to describe the type of GDM, and are based primarily on gestational age at diagnosis.

HYPOthyroidism and Pregnancy

Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders encountered during pregnancy. An overall incidence including overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) during pregnancy is about 2.5 percent.1 When dietary iodine supplementation is adequate (as in the United States), the most common cause of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis.

HYPERthyroidism in Pregnancy

Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders encountered during pregnancy. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) during pregnancy ranges from 0.05 to 0.2%. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are Graves’ diseaseand hCG-mediated hyperthyroidism such as gestational transient hyperthyroidism, hyperemesis gravidarum (intractable nausea and vomiting), and gestational trophoblastic disease.

Depression in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Clinical depression is more than just sadness. Although there are clear patterns, the symptoms can be very different from person to person. The most common symptom is called “anhedonia,” or no longer taking pleasure in fun activities. Some people become insomniacs, some sleep most of the day. Other people start abusing drugs and alcohol, while some simply get irritable and short-tempered. No lab or imaging tests can help diagnose depression, only the clinical judgment of a health-care practitioner. There are several clinical tools available to help diagnose depression.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term encompassing ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. These two syndromes of chronic inflammation commonly affect women of childbearing age. About 1 in 250 people in the United States has IBD, with most of the cases beginning between ages 15 and 40.

Over-The-Counter Treatments for GI Complaints

A typical pharmacy has shelf after shelf of medicines that can be sold without a doctor's prescription. These are called over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Many concerned mothers wonder about the safety of these medications while they are breastfeeding a baby. While there are many brands and varieties of drugs on the market, there is a relatively small list of active ingredients in all those products. Careful review of the product label is an essential part of responsible and safe use of these medicines. Some preparations have more than one active ingredient.

Over-The-Counter Treatments for Cough and Cold

A typical pharmacy has shelf after shelf of medicines that can be sold without a doctor's prescription. These are called over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Many concerned mothers wonder about the safety of these medications while they are breastfeeding a baby. While there are many brands and varieties of drugs on the market, there is a relatively small list of active ingredients in all those products. Careful review of the product label is an essential part of responsible and safe use of these medicines. Some preparations have more than one active ingredient.

Over-The-Counter Treatments for Skin Problems

A typical pharmacy has shelf after shelf of medicines that can be sold without a doctor's prescription. These are called over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Many concerned mothers wonder about the safety of these medications while they are breastfeeding a baby. While there are many brands and varieties of drugs on the market, there is a relatively small list of active ingredients in all those products. Careful review of the product label is an essential part of responsible and safe use of these medicines. Some preparations have more than one active ingredient.

Skin Care for Acne

Adult acne during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a common problem. Under these circumstances, the adrenal glands secrete higher levels of androgen hormones that cause the sebaceous glands in the skin to increase in size and production. The extra oil clogs the enlarged pores and promotes the growth of bacteria, especially Propionibacterium acnes.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Pregnancy

Gastroesophageal reflux is a back flow of stomach contents into the esophagus. This phenomenon occurs in virtually everyone from time to time. The sphincter muscle that divides the esophagus from the stomach must open periodically to allow food and saliva entry into the stomach, and is not always able to close again quickly.
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