Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord. Episodes can last for days, weeks or months and alternate with periods of reduced or no symptoms at all.

A recent study has suggested that use of probiotics in pregnancy and breastfeeding may reduce the risk of eczema in infants.1 Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is the term  broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions which include dryness and recurring skin rashes characterized by: redness, skin edema (swelling), itching, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing,...

Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects systemic glucose metabolism. With type 2 diabetes, one’s body either resists the effects of insulin (a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells),  or the body doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.

Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear space, behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is characterized by pain, dizziness, and partial loss of hearing. The prevalence of early-onset otitis media (OM) and repeated OM continues to increase among preschool children in the United States.[1]

Cancer is the leading cause of death among U.S children between infancy and 15 years of age. Approximately 11,210 new cases of pediatric cancer were diagnosed in children 0–14 years of age in 2011.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby, usually during sleep. It is also called as crib death.It is the leading cause of post neonatal death in developed countries and the eighth leading cause of years of potential life lost.

Ovarian canceris a malignant growth arising from the ovary.   In the US almost 20,000 cases of ovarian cancer were reported in 2006.

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A recent study has suggested that a history of not being breastfed may be associated with a higher risk of subsequent major depression in adulthood.In this study of 52 female and male adults with a diagnosis of major depression, there were also 106 healthy controls who never suffered depression. The authors found that 61 of 84 (72%) subjects had never reported depression, were...

Pyloric stenosis (PS), also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, is caused by hypertrophy of smooth muscles of the pylorus.  The pylorus is the outlet of the stomach and therefore its constriction leads to obstruction, often observed as projectile vomiting in the newborn infant. Its cause is unknown but presents as a palpable mass in right upper quadrant of abdomen.

In 2003, a report was published which reviewed the poisoning of newborns by the inadvertent use of intramuscular or oral methylergonovine (at adult doses) directly in infants. Thirty-four cases were reviewed in Belgium where methylergonovine was accidentally administered orally or intramuscularly directly to infants.The intramuscular injections produced severe complications as...

Breastfeeding appears to protect infants from infection. In a study by Dewey et al, infants who breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea, otitis media (ear infection), and upper respiratory infections in the first year of life. Continued breastfeeding into the second year of life did not decrease the number of illnesses but did shorten the duration of otitis media.[1]

Extreme temperatures have the potential to alter the effectiveness of medications. Drugs should not be stored in areas where the temperature may exceed 86 degrees or drop below 58 degrees. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications are at risk for loss of potency and changes in chemical structure if not stored properly.

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About the InfantRisk Center Team

Dr. Thomas Hale

Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., is a professor of pediatrics and associate dean of research at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and acting executive director of the InfantRisk Center.

Hale is considered one of the foremost expert in the field of perinatal pharmacology and the use of medications by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.

The vision of the InfantRisk Center is to create a new body of drug information concerning the safety of medications and their use during pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the center will expand, enhance and disseminate knowledge regarding the use of medications and other environmental chemicals by pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide.


Dr. Teresa Baker


Dr. Baker graduated from the University of Texas Southwestern and completed her residency training at Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, TX. She is Board Certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Dr. Baker has a combined private and academic OB/GYN practice with the University Physicians at Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Amarillo. She is interested in teen pregnancy, postpartum depression, and promoting preventive medicine for the women of the Texas Panhandle, as well as Resident and Student education and serves as the Residency Director.

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