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Pyloric stenosis (PS), also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, is caused by hypertrophy of smooth muscles of the pylorus. The pylorus is the outlet of the stomach and therefore its constriction leads to obstruction, often observed as projectile vomiting in the newborn infant. Its cause is unknown but presents as a palpable mass in right upper quadrant of abdomen.
In 2003, a report was published which reviewed the poisoning of newborns by the inadvertent use of intramuscular or oral methylergonovine (at adult doses) directly in infants. Thirty-four cases were reviewed in Belgium where methylergonovine was accidentally administered orally or intramuscularly directly to infants.1 The intramuscular injections produced severe complications as...
Breastfeeding appears to protect infants from infection. In a study by Dewey et al, infants who breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea, otitis media (ear infection), and upper respiratory infections in the first year of life. Continued breastfeeding into the second year of life did not decrease the number of illnesses but did shorten the duration of otitis media.
Extreme temperatures have the potential to alter the effectiveness of medications. Drugs should not be stored in areas where the temperature may exceed 86 degrees or drop below 58 degrees. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications are at risk for loss of potency and changes in chemical structure if not stored properly.
The importance of managing maternal postpartum pain is widely recognized. Yet how to provide treatment that is protective of the neonate while simultaneously providing adequate maternal therapy has not been determined.
Anaphylaxis is a severe, systemic allergic reaction that can be potentially life threatening. A massive release of histamine from the tissues causes a drop in blood pressure, narrowing of the airways, and urticaria. Insect stings, nut products, and latex can all cause anaphylaxis in susceptible people.
Most women who breastfeed exclusively stop having menstrual periods. This is known as lactational amenorrhea. During lactational amenorrhea, the potential for ovulation is reduced. Subsequently, the chances of conception during this period decrease to approximately 0.5-2%, moreover, there is still a risk of pregnancy. Many women fear that because they are breastfeeding...
Pain is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention. Pain is a symptom with an extremely broad differential diagnosis. Effective treatments are based on proper diagnosis. The source, severity, and the cause of the pain need also be considered. There are several analgesics that can be used for a variety of pain syndromes.
In the USA and many other countries, the predominant enterohemorrhagic E. coli subtype associated with disease is E. coli O157:H7. Recently, a large number of cases of antibiotic-resistant E. coli O104 have been reported in Germany, some in breastfeeding mothers. This particular species is known to secrete Shiga toxins and to produce potentially severe renal disease in humans.
Topical teething products containing benzocaine have been formulated to soothe the pain of teething in infants and children. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently reported that the use of benzocaine may increase the risk of a serious medical condition called methemoglobinemia.
Potassium iodide was approved by the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) in 1982 for thyroid protection from radioactive iodine accidents. Of the many radioactive elements released by nuclear accidents, radioactive Iodine-131 is a major component and a huge risk factor for humans.
The Food and Drug Administration has announced that use of Topiramate (Topamax) by pregnant women can result in birth defects such as cleft lip or palate. Topiramate is an anti-convulsant medication used in the treatment of seizure disorder and for the prevention of migraines.
About the InfantRisk Center Team
Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., is a professor of pediatrics and associate dean of research at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and acting executive director of the InfantRisk Center. Hale is considered one of the foremost expert in the field of perinatal pharmacology and the use of medications by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.
The vision of the InfantRisk Center is to create a new body of drug information concerning the safety of medications and their use during pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the center will expand, enhance and disseminate knowledge regarding the use of medications and other environmental chemicals by pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide.
Christine D. Garner, PhD, RD, completed her doctorate Nutrition at Cornell University, where she was an NIH Doctoral Trainee in Maternal and Child Nutrition. She was trained as a Registered Dietitian at the University of California San Francisco, where she also worked for several years as a Pediatric Clinical Dietitian.
Garner’s interests involve maternal and child health from a nutritional perspective. The majority of her research has centered on maternal obesity and breastfeeding, and she has used a combination of statistical and qualitative methods to investigate research questions pertaining to these topics.
Kathleen A Rewers-Felkins is a Research Associate in the Department of Pediatrics at Texas Tech University School of Medicine. She received her Bachelors of Science from Loyola University Chicago and completed her Masters of Science at University of Houston. She has worked for Harrington Cancer Center, including a clinical trial as well as in several TT research labs, involved with cell culture, bacterial culture, PCR assays, animal work and liquid chromatography/mass spectrophotometry.
Amanda Griffin MD graduated from University of Nebraska Medical Center and completed her residency training in Pediatrics from Texas Tech University School of Medicine. Her practice includes direct patient care as well as supervision and education of residents and students in the outpatient clinic, newborn nursery, and inpatient ward. She also serves the same roles in a clinic for children with special healthcare needs.
Dr. Griffin also helped establish and presently supervised a breastfeeding clinic in the Department of Pediatrics. She supervises a Board Certified Lactation Consultant and helped expand the access of our patients to lactation services in our community. She is a Pediatric hospitalist and admits and cares for inpatients of private pediatricians in Amarillo.
Rachel Anderson MD is an assistant professor of pediatrics. She graduated from Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 2013 and completed her Pediatric residency at TTUHSC Amarillo in 2016. She has interests in Foster Care, breastfeeding, child abuse and neglect, and other disorders in pediatrics.
Sandra Lovato, RN is a Registered Nurse and telephone advisor for the InfantRisk Center. She received her ADN from the Amarillo College of School of Nursing in May of 2008. She began working at the InfantRisk Center in November of 2013 as a Senior Adviser for Dr. Hale. Since she began working under Dr. Hale, she has learned a lot about the effects of medications and their passage into breastmilk. She is glad to be a part of such a valuable and important resource for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and seeks to help mothers have a long, healthy breastfeeding relationship with their child.
Teresa Baker, MD. graduated from the University of Texas Southwestern and completed her residency training at Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, TX. She is Board Certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Dr. Baker has a combined private and academic OB/GYN practice with the University Physicians at Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Amarillo. She is interested in teen pregnancy, postpartum depression, and promoting preventive medicine for the women of the Texas Panhandle, as well as Resident and Student education and serves as the Residency Director.
Palika Datta Ph.D. is a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Texas Tech University School of Medicine. She completed her Ph.D. in All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Dr. Datta did postdoctoral work at TTUHSC School of Pharmacy before joining the InfantRisk Center 4 years ago. She has broad experience in conventional biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Microarray, Protein expression, purification in mammalian and bacterial cell culture system. Dr. Datta runs and supervises our highly sophisticated clinical pharmacology laboratories.
Dr. Mubariz Naqvi, MD is a long-time member of the Department of Pediatrics. He is Professor of Pediatrics and is a board certified neonatologist. Dr. Naqvi has spent many years supporting the use of human milk in his premature infants. He is a member of the Critical Care Committee, Neonatal Transport Committee, Pediatric Residency Committee, Chair of Education Research Sub-committee, and numerous other hospital and educational committees. Dr. Naqvi is Board Certified by American Academy of Pediatrics with a subspecialty Board of in Subspecialty Board of Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine.
Todd Bell, MD. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics although he is double boarded in Pediatrics and Internal Medicine. He received his MD from the University of Arkansas School of Medicine cum laude in 2001. He completed a combined general internal medicine and general pediatrics residency in Durham, North Carolina at Duke University Medical Center. Dr. Bell has extensive research experience, particularly in influenza, infectious diseases, and dysautonomia.
Jonathan Craddock is a Full Stack Web Developer and Mobile app developer for the InfantRisk Center. He received his degree in Computer Information Sciences from Amarillo College in 2010 and began working with Dr. Hale and the IRC early in 2012. He develops and maintains the InfantRisk Center websites, apps, and other applications and systems critical to Dr. Hale's research and data.
Alicia Gill, RN is a Registered Nurse and telephone advisor for the Infant Risk Center. She graduated the Vocational Nursing Program from Clarendon College in 2007. Then she received her ADN from Amarillo College in 2010. She began working at the Infant Risk Center in June of 2019 as a Senior Advisor for Dr. Hale. She has learned a lot about the effects of medications and their passage into breastmilk. She is excited to be a part of an important and valuable research center for pregnant and breast feeding moms.