Gastroesophageal reflux is a back flow of stomach contents into the esophagus. This phenomenon occurs in virtually everyone from time to time. The sphincter muscle that divides the esophagus from the stomach must open periodically to allow food and saliva entry into the stomach, and is not always able to close again quickly.
While the consumption of alcohol is well known by the medical community as a potential hazard to a fetus, alcohol use during lactation is commonly a gray area for breastfeeding mothers. This article strives to clarify the extent to which a mother can safely use alcohol without adverse effects to her infant.
The evolution of the human brain is a relatively recent occurrence in the world. There are “reward circuits” in the brain, specifically dopaminergic pathways in the mesolimbic system, that provide positive reinforcement for a variety of activities that favor human survival. In modern society, people are free to pursue all kinds of fun things that have nothing to do with keeping them alive.
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world. It occurs naturally in many plants and is chemically added to a wide variety of products. Most coffees, sodas, teas, and chocolates, as well as some medications, contain caffeine. Many women are in the habit of consuming caffeine before they become pregnant and want to know if it is safe for their baby before they continue.
Cellular phones, cordless phones, and Wi-Fi hubs all communicate using radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the 3 KHz to 300 GHz range. This type of radiation is much less powerful than the radiation found in gamma rays, x-rays, or even bright sunlight.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disorder in which an affected person is less able to process the amino acid phenylalanine. Abnormally high levels of phenylalanine in the blood and tissues can cause a variety of toxic effects, including brain damage. All infants born in hospitals in the United States, and much of the rest of the first world, are routinely tested for PKU.
Many women choose to consume alcohol during their reproductive years. For most people, alcohol consumption in moderation is not harmful but for a fetus, alcohol exposure can be devastating. The office of the US Surgeon General recommends complete abstinence from alcohol for women who are planning to become pregnant and throughout all stages of their pregnancy.1
With respect to milk supply in women taking methylergonovine, we have found that a single post-partum dose will suppress prolactin levels, but doesn't seem to have much of a noticeable effect on supply. Existing studies are conflicted regarding this drug's effect on milk supply if used for more than a single post-partum dose.
G6PD deficiency is a metabolic disorder in which an enzyme in red blood cells, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, does not work as well as it should. This deficiency makes the blood begins to break down during periods of significant oxidative stress, such as after ingestion of certain drugs and foods.
Neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar in a new baby) is a common problem in hospital nurseries. Some infants can have low blood sugar and show no symptoms, others become jittery and may feed poorly, and in severe cases, the infant may suffer brain damage or have developmental delay.
The last few years have seen a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Whatever the cause of this may be, increasing incidence of these diseases poses a particular risk to patients who are not able to receive the vaccines, including babies less than 3 months of age.
A recent study explored the relationship between maternal colonization (bacteria on the mother’s skin surface) with Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA), during pregnancy and delivery to determine the association with...