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The evolution of the human brain is a relatively recent occurrence in the world. There are “reward circuits” in the brain, specifically dopaminergic pathways in the mesolimbic system, that provide positive reinforcement for a variety of activities that favor human survival. In modern society, people are free to pursue all kinds of fun things that have nothing to do with keeping them alive.
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world. It occurs naturally in many plants and is chemically added to a wide variety of products. Most coffees, sodas, teas, and chocolates, as well as some medications, contain caffeine. Many women are in the habit of consuming caffeine before they become pregnant and want to know if it is safe for their baby before they continue.
Cellular phones, cordless phones, and Wi-Fi hubs all communicate using radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the 3 KHz to 300 GHz range. This type of radiation is much less powerful than the radiation found in gamma rays, x-rays, or even bright sunlight.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disorder in which an affected person is less able to process the amino acid phenylalanine. Abnormally high levels of phenylalanine in the blood and tissues can cause a variety of toxic effects, including brain damage. All infants born in hospitals in the United States, and much of the rest of the first world, are routinely tested for PKU.
Many women choose to consume alcohol during their reproductive years. For most people, alcohol consumption in moderation is not harmful but for a fetus, alcohol exposure can be devastating. The office of the US Surgeon General recommends complete abstinence from alcohol for women who are planning to become pregnant and throughout all stages of their pregnancy.1
With respect to milk supply in women taking methylergonovine, we have found that a single post-partum dose will suppress prolactin levels, but doesn't seem to have much of a noticeable effect on supply. Existing studies are conflicted regarding this drug's effect on milk supply if used for more than a single post-partum dose.
G6PD deficiency is a metabolic disorder in which an enzyme in red blood cells, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, does not work as well as it should. This deficiency makes the blood begins to break down during periods of significant oxidative stress, such as after ingestion of certain drugs and foods.
Neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar in a new baby) is a common problem in hospital nurseries. Some infants can have low blood sugar and show no symptoms, others become jittery and may feed poorly, and in severe cases, the infant may suffer brain damage or have developmental delay.
The last few years have seen a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Whatever the cause of this may be, increasing incidence of these diseases poses a particular risk to patients who are not able to receive the vaccines, including babies less than 3 months of age.
A recent study explored the relationship between maternal colonization (bacteria on the mother’s skin surface) with Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA), during pregnancy and delivery to determine the association with...
Asthma is a common chronic airway disorder characterized by periods of reversible airflow obstruction known as asthma attacks. One in 12 people (about 25 million, or 8% of the U.S. population) had asthma in 2009.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. In 1990, the incidence of breast cancer was 5–7 per 100 women in developed countries in patients less than 70 years of age, and 1–2 per 100 in Asian and African countries.1
Several studies have suggested that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of several types of breast cancers.
About the InfantRisk Center Team
Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., is a professor of pediatrics and associate dean of research at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and acting executive director of the InfantRisk Center. Hale is considered one of the foremost expert in the field of perinatal pharmacology and the use of medications by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.
The vision of the InfantRisk Center is to create a new body of drug information concerning the safety of medications and their use during pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the center will expand, enhance and disseminate knowledge regarding the use of medications and other environmental chemicals by pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide.
Christine D. Garner, PhD, RD, completed her doctorate Nutrition at Cornell University, where she was an NIH Doctoral Trainee in Maternal and Child Nutrition. She was trained as a Registered Dietitian at the University of California San Francisco, where she also worked for several years as a Pediatric Clinical Dietitian.
Garner’s interests involve maternal and child health from a nutritional perspective. The majority of her research has centered on maternal obesity and breastfeeding, and she has used a combination of statistical and qualitative methods to investigate research questions pertaining to these topics.
Dr. Mubariz Naqvi, MD is a long-time member of the Department of Pediatrics. He is a Professor of Pediatrics and is a board certified neonatologist. Dr. Naqvi has spent many years supporting the use of human milk in both term and preterm babies. He is the founder of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Northwest Texas Hospital in Amarillo. He introduced the Neonatal Transport Service, is involved with the Pediatric residency and medical student education, is a member of the Education Research sub-committee, and numerous other hospital and educational committees. He has been designated as a Master Teacher by the Texas Tech Medical School. He is involved in the Outreach Education Program for regional hospitals in the Texas Panhandle. He also conducts follow-up of NICU graduates. Dr. Naqvi is Board Certified by the American Academy of Pediatrics with a Subspecialty Board in Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine.
Dr. Baker graduated from the University of Texas Southwestern and completed her residency training at Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, TX. She is Board Certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Dr. Baker has a combined private and academic OB/GYN practice with the University Physicians at Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Amarillo. She is interested in teen pregnancy, postpartum depression, and promoting preventive medicine for the women of the Texas Panhandle, as well as Resident and Student education and serves as the Residency Director.
Dr. Amanda Griffin MD graduated from University of Nebraska Medical Center and completed her residency training in Pediatrics from Texas Tech University School of Medicine. Her practice includes direct patient care as well as supervision and education of residents and students in the outpatient clinic, newborn nursery, and inpatient ward. She also serves the same roles in a clinic for children with special healthcare needs.
Dr. Griffin also helped establish and presently supervised a breastfeeding clinic in the Department of Pediatrics. She supervises a Board Certified Lactation Consultant and helped expand the access of our patients to lactation services in our community. She is a Pediatric hospitalist and admits and cares for inpatients of private pediatricians in Amarillo.
Dr. Todd Bell is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics although he is double boarded in Pediatrics and Internal Medicine. He received his MD from the University of Arkansas School of Medicine cum laude in 2001. He completed a combined general internal medicine and general pediatrics residency in Durham, North Carolina at Duke University Medical Center. Dr. Bell has extensive research experience, particularly in influenza, infectious diseases, and dysautonomia.