Mechanisms of Drug Entry into Human Milk

Many women are concerned about using insect repellents during pregnancy, however, mosquito borne illnesses can be dangerous during pregnancy. Two examples of mosquito transmitted illnesses are malaria and the west nile virus. Both can be avoided by avoiding mosquito bites. Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) are the most effective and widely used.

There is a massive emphasis on ‘natural’ products in mainstream media these days.

There are basically two reasons that a mother's milk is red.  Sometimes a small rupture in a blood capillary in the nipple or the breast may turn milk pink.   The second reason is a bacterium called Serratia marsescens.

Migraines affect up to 17% of women of childbearing age. These headaches are usually one sided and are likely to have a pulsatile or throbbing quality. Accompanying features may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light or sound.

Marijuana Plant

     Current studies indicate that approximately 4% of women in the USA use illicit drugs while pregnant. Seventy five percent of these cases report the use of marijuana. Despite the widespread use of this product, the public is not aware of the potential neurobehavioral effects of this drug on the fetus or the newborn infant.

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About the InfantRisk Center Team

Dr. Thomas Hale

Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., is a professor of pediatrics and associate dean of research at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and acting executive director of the InfantRisk Center.

Hale is considered one of the foremost expert in the field of perinatal pharmacology and the use of medications by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.

The vision of the InfantRisk Center is to create a new body of drug information concerning the safety of medications and their use during pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the center will expand, enhance and disseminate knowledge regarding the use of medications and other environmental chemicals by pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide.


Dr. Teresa Baker


Dr. Baker graduated from the University of Texas Southwestern and completed her residency training at Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, TX. She is Board Certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Dr. Baker has a combined private and academic OB/GYN practice with the University Physicians at Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Amarillo. She is interested in teen pregnancy, postpartum depression, and promoting preventive medicine for the women of the Texas Panhandle, as well as Resident and Student education and serves as the Residency Director.

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