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There are basically two reasons that a mother's milk is red. Sometimes a small rupture in a blood capillary in the nipple or the breast may turn milk pink. The second reason is a bacterium called Serratia marsescens.
Many women are concerned about using insect repellents during pregnancy, however, mosquito borne illnesses can be dangerous during pregnancy. Two examples of mosquito transmitted illnesses are malaria and the west nile virus. Both can be avoided by avoiding mosquito bites. Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) are the most effective and widely used.
Head lice or Pediculus humanus capitis, attack as many as 12 million children every year. Lice are spread by direct contact with infested hair. Sharing combs, brushes, beds, and hats may also contribute to the spread of these parasites. Lice infestations in the U.S. are more frequent in girls and lead to stigma and absenteeism from school or day care.1, 2
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) also known as “morning sickness” is one of the most common conditions of pregnancy that affect approximately 80% of pregnant women. Although the cause is still unknown (many theories exist), we do know that most women have resolution of symptoms by the time they are 16 weeks pregnant.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and supports the continuation of breastfeeding through the first year of life along with the initiation of other foods. Most mothers make the decision on whether or not they will breastfeed either prior to or during pregnancy.
The FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) recently announced changes in the Pregnancy category for valproate. Valproate products include valproate sodium (Depacon), valproic acid (Depakene and Stavzor), and divalproex sodium (Depakote). The valproates are categorized as anticonvulsants and mood stabilizers.
Smoking is a common social practice worldwide. It is estimated that around 18% of US adults smoke.1The CDC estimates that more than 16 million Americans have diseases due to smoking.2Because awareness of smoking hazards has been increased, there is a new player in the market, E-cigarettes, which are being marketed as a healthier and safer alternative to cigarettes.
Pregnancy leads to a range of skin changes among women. Some women experience no skin changes while others can experience severe acne, discoloration, or pigmentation. Acne is a common concern among pregnant women. Various treatments are available, but the safety of these modalities during pregnancy should be a concern. Current evidence for the safety of acne treatment is limited. A generalized...
Insect bites are certainly annoying, but they can also transmit disease. In the USA alone, insect bites can transmit Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever to name a few.
Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a water-soluble B vitamin that takes part in several critical functions in the human body. The active form of folate is tetrahydrofolic acid. It serves in one carbon reductions reactions.
Recently, the InfantRisk Center was asked to comment on the use of a new, extended-release bupivicaine product called Exparel. This drug is applied to surgical wounds and provides local anasthesia over then next 3-4 days. Some doctors are beginning to use it with C-sections and have some concerns about its safety profile in breastfeeding mothers. This is what we said:
Tobacco use during pregnancy is the most important modifiable risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Research has shown that smoking during pregnancy causes many health problems for both mothers and babies, such as infertility, placental rupture, abnormal placental implantation, preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) or early rupture of the amniotic sac membrane,...
About the InfantRisk Center Team
Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., is a professor of pediatrics and associate dean of research at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and acting executive director of the InfantRisk Center. Hale is considered one of the foremost expert in the field of perinatal pharmacology and the use of medications by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.
The vision of the InfantRisk Center is to create a new body of drug information concerning the safety of medications and their use during pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the center will expand, enhance and disseminate knowledge regarding the use of medications and other environmental chemicals by pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide.
Christine D. Garner, PhD, RD, completed her doctorate Nutrition at Cornell University, where she was an NIH Doctoral Trainee in Maternal and Child Nutrition. She was trained as a Registered Dietitian at the University of California San Francisco, where she also worked for several years as a Pediatric Clinical Dietitian.
Garner’s interests involve maternal and child health from a nutritional perspective. The majority of her research has centered on maternal obesity and breastfeeding, and she has used a combination of statistical and qualitative methods to investigate research questions pertaining to these topics.
Kathleen A Rewers-Felkins is a Research Associate in the Department of Pediatrics at Texas Tech University School of Medicine. She received her Bachelors of Science from Loyola University Chicago and completed her Masters of Science at University of Houston. She has worked for Harrington Cancer Center, including a clinical trial as well as in several TT research labs, involved with cell culture, bacterial culture, PCR assays, animal work and liquid chromatography/mass spectrophotometry.
Amanda Griffin MD graduated from University of Nebraska Medical Center and completed her residency training in Pediatrics from Texas Tech University School of Medicine. Her practice includes direct patient care as well as supervision and education of residents and students in the outpatient clinic, newborn nursery, and inpatient ward. She also serves the same roles in a clinic for children with special healthcare needs.
Dr. Griffin also helped establish and presently supervised a breastfeeding clinic in the Department of Pediatrics. She supervises a Board Certified Lactation Consultant and helped expand the access of our patients to lactation services in our community. She is a Pediatric hospitalist and admits and cares for inpatients of private pediatricians in Amarillo.
Rachel Anderson MD is an assistant professor of pediatrics. She graduated from Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 2013 and completed her Pediatric residency at TTUHSC Amarillo in 2016. She has interests in Foster Care, breastfeeding, child abuse and neglect, and other disorders in pediatrics.
Sandra Lovato, RN is a Registered Nurse and telephone advisor for the InfantRisk Center. She received her ADN from the Amarillo College of School of Nursing in May of 2008. She began working at the InfantRisk Center in November of 2013 as a Senior Adviser for Dr. Hale. Since she began working under Dr. Hale, she has learned a lot about the effects of medications and their passage into breastmilk. She is glad to be a part of such a valuable and important resource for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and seeks to help mothers have a long, healthy breastfeeding relationship with their child.
Teresa Baker, MD. graduated from the University of Texas Southwestern and completed her residency training at Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, TX. She is Board Certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Dr. Baker has a combined private and academic OB/GYN practice with the University Physicians at Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Amarillo. She is interested in teen pregnancy, postpartum depression, and promoting preventive medicine for the women of the Texas Panhandle, as well as Resident and Student education and serves as the Residency Director.
Palika Datta Ph.D. is a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Texas Tech University School of Medicine. She completed her Ph.D. in All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Dr. Datta did postdoctoral work at TTUHSC School of Pharmacy before joining the InfantRisk Center 4 years ago. She has broad experience in conventional biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Microarray, Protein expression, purification in mammalian and bacterial cell culture system. Dr. Datta runs and supervises our highly sophisticated clinical pharmacology laboratories.
Dr. Mubariz Naqvi, MD is a long-time member of the Department of Pediatrics. He is Professor of Pediatrics and is a board certified neonatologist. Dr. Naqvi has spent many years supporting the use of human milk in his premature infants. He is a member of the Critical Care Committee, Neonatal Transport Committee, Pediatric Residency Committee, Chair of Education Research Sub-committee, and numerous other hospital and educational committees. Dr. Naqvi is Board Certified by American Academy of Pediatrics with a subspecialty Board of in Subspecialty Board of Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine.
Todd Bell, MD. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics although he is double boarded in Pediatrics and Internal Medicine. He received his MD from the University of Arkansas School of Medicine cum laude in 2001. He completed a combined general internal medicine and general pediatrics residency in Durham, North Carolina at Duke University Medical Center. Dr. Bell has extensive research experience, particularly in influenza, infectious diseases, and dysautonomia.
Jonathan Craddock is a Full Stack Web Developer and Mobile app developer for the InfantRisk Center. He received his degree in Computer Information Sciences from Amarillo College in 2010 and began working with Dr. Hale and the IRC early in 2012. He develops and maintains the InfantRisk Center websites, apps, and other applications and systems critical to Dr. Hale's research and data.
Alicia Gill, RN is a Registered Nurse and telephone advisor for the Infant Risk Center. She graduated the Vocational Nursing Program from Clarendon College in 2007. Then she received her ADN from Amarillo College in 2010. She began working at the Infant Risk Center in June of 2019 as a Senior Advisor for Dr. Hale. She has learned a lot about the effects of medications and their passage into breastmilk. She is excited to be a part of an important and valuable research center for pregnant and breast feeding moms.