Nothing is more important for a fetus than the adequate control of blood pressure in the mom. We are seeing hypertension more and more often today in pregnant women as the rate of obesity has risen. This study reviews treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. TWH
Br Med Bull. 2018 Oct 29. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldy035. [Epub ahead of print]
The management of hypertension in women planning for pregnancy.
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND:
Poorly-controlled hypertension in the first trimester significantly increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The majority of guidelines and clinical trials focus on the management and treatments for hypertension during pregnancy and breast-feeding, while limited evidence could be applied to the management for hypertension before pregnancy. In this review, we summarized the existing guidelines and treatments of pre-pregnancy treatment of hypertension.
SOURCES OF DATA:
AREAS OF AGREEMENT:
Methyldopa and labetalol are considered the first choice, but angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) need to be withdrawn if a hypertensive woman wishes to become pregnant. In women with chronic hypertension, it is very important to make an assessment before conception to exclude secondary causes of hypertension, evaluate their hypertensive control to ensure that it is optimal, discuss the increased risks of pre-eclampsia, and provide education regarding any drug alterations before they become pregnant.
AREAS OF CONTROVERSY:
There is increasing debate regarding discouraging the use of diuretics. There is also controversy regarding the use of supplementations such as calcium, antioxidants and low-dose aspirin.
A less restricted blood-pressure goal could be set for hypertensive women planning for pregnancy. A healthy body weight before pregnancy could lower the risk of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders. Recent guidelines also encourage women with chronic hypertension to keep their dietary sodium intake low, either by reducing or substituting sodium salt before pregnancy.
TIMELY AREAS FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH:
Large, worldwide, randomized trials should be conducted to see the outcomes for hypertensive women who take antioxidants/physical activity before pregnancy.