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Articles and content related to breastfeeding.

Increased Risk of Pyloric Stenosis with Formula Feeding with Bottles.

Pyloric stenosis (PS), also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, is caused by hypertrophy of smooth muscles of the pylorus.  The pylorus is the outlet of the stomach and therefore its constriction leads to obstruction, often observed as projectile vomiting in the newborn infant. Its cause is unknown but presents as a palpable mass in right upper quadrant of abdomen. It is a common condition that requires surgery in first few days to months after birth, suggesting that environmental factors could be a trigger.

Use of Methylergonovine in Breastfeeding Mothers

In 2003, a report was published which reviewed the poisoning of newborns by the inadvertent use of intramuscular or oral methylergonovine (at adult doses) directly in infants. Thirty-four cases were reviewed in Belgium where methylergonovine was accidentally administered orally or intramuscularly directly to infants. The intramuscular injections produced severe complications as would be expected.

Revisiting the Benefits of Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding appears to protect infants from infection. In a study by Dewey et al, infants who breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea, otitis media (ear infection), and upper respiratory infections in the first year of life. Continued breastfeeding into the second year of life did not decrease the number of illnesses but did shorten the duration of otitis media.

A Review of Codeine Safety and Regulations for the Breastfeeding Mother

The importance of managing maternal postpartum pain is widely recognized. Yet how to provide treatment that is protective of the neonate while simultaneously providing adequate maternal therapy has not been determined. Just under half of the infants born in North America are delivered by cesarean section or vaginally after episiotomy and frequently a regimen containing some form of codeine is prescribed for analgesia.

Breastfeeding Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a severe, systemic allergic reaction that can be potentially life threatening. A massive release of histamine from the tissues causes a drop in blood pressure, narrowing of the airways, and urticaria. Insect stings, nut products, and latex can all cause anaphylaxis in susceptible people. There have also been several cases published describing a similar reaction to some element of breastfeeding.

Safe Use of Birth Control While Breastfeeding

Most women who breastfeed exclusively stop having menstrual periods.This is known as lactational amenorrhea and during lactational amenorrhea, the potential for ovulation is reduced. Subsequently, the chances of conception during this period decrease to approximately 0.5-2%, moreover, there is still a risk of pregnancy. Many women fear that because they are breastfeeding they cannot use any form of contraception. However, the use of contraception should not prevent a mother from breastfeeding.

Safely Managing Pain During Lactation

Pain is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention. Pain is a symptom with an extremely broad differential diagnosis. Effective treatments are based on proper diagnosis. The source, severity, and the cause of the pain need also be considered. There are several analgesics that can be used for a variety of pain syndromes. These include Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), opiates, and non-opiate drugs.

Breastfeeding in Mothers with E. Coli Infections

In the USA and many other countries, the predominant enterohemorrhagic E. coli subtype associated with disease is E. coli O157:H7. Recently, a large number of cases of antibiotic-resistant E. coli O104 have been reported in Germany, some in breastfeeding mothers. This particular species is known to secrete Shiga toxins and to produce potentially severe renal disease in humans. The question has arisen as to whether breastfeeding mothers should continue to breastfeed while undergoing therapy for this severe infection.

Potassium Iodide for Radiation Exposure

Potassium iodide was approved by the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) in 1982 for thyroid protection from radioactive iodine accidents.  Of the many radioactive elements released by nuclear accidents, radioactive Iodine-131 is a major component and a huge risk factor for humans.
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